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Black Florida | Black Miami

Trailer for The Black Miami, a documentary based on Black Miami
Dr. Marvin Dunn

Black Florida Organizations

100 Black Men of South Florida, Inc.

African Village, Jacksonville

Afro-Latino Professionals

The Black Archives, History & Research Foundation of
South Florida Inc

Democratic Black Caucus of Florida

Miami Dade Chamber of Commerce

NAACP Florida State Conference

Roots in the City, South Florida, Marvin Dunn
CBS    Redland Rambles

#TheNorthsideCoalitionOfJacksonville on Facebook

Northside Coalition, Ben Frazier, Jacksonville

Related Organizations

Cops, courts in Miami-Dade harsher on blacks. New study details stark racial disparities.  7/19/2018 Miami Herald: "No group in Miami-Dade County gets treated more harshly in the criminal justice system than blacks, according to a joint study released Thursday by the American Civil Liberties Union and University of Miami. Researchers, who analyzed five years of data between 2010 and 2015, found stark differences across the board."

The State of Black Broward: Starting the Conversation  3/9/2017 West Side Gazette: "Last week: “The dismal statistics presented at the recent “State of Black Broward” conference: only eight of the county’s 90 judges are Black; Black motorists are stopped 1.9 times more than whites for seat belt violations; median household income is $74,000 for whites and $43,000 for Blacks; the unemployment rate last year was 4.4 percent but nine percent for Blacks; and, of the more than 800 firefighters in Broward Sheriff’s Office Fire-Rescue, only 54 are Black. Combined with recent studies showing racial disparities in school suspensions and sentencing, there is but one conclusion: Broward has a race problem,” stated Clarence V. McKee, president, McKee Communications in an op-ed in the South Florida 100- Sun Sentinel Sunday March 5, 2017.
Miami has the 6th largest Black population of any metropolitan area in the nation at 1,229,061 which is 21% of the total. Many are not aware that Miami’s Black population is so large. Almost 20% of this population is foreign born.

Miami’s Forgotten Cubans by Alan A. Aja

The Racial Politics of Division: Interethnic Struggles for Legitimacy in Multicultural Miami, Monika Goslin

Black Florida Media

Black Viewpoint, Jacksonville

Central Florida Advocate

Daytona Times

Florida Courier

Jacksonville Free Press

Miami Times

Orlando Advocate

Orlando Times

Black Politico, Orlando

Pensacola Voice

South Florida Times

Tallahasse Capital Outlook

The Westside Gazette, Fort Lauderdale

Trailer 2 for The Black Miami, a documentary based on Black Miami
Dr. Marvin Dunn

‘Officials in Florida city say they face ‘unimaginable’ potential death from COVID-19: ‘Recipe for disaster’  4/8/2020 Alternet: "Officials in the Florida city of Hialeah are warning that they are uniquely vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic and face the possibility of “unimaginable” death from the disease. In interviews with The Daily Beast, the officials explained how their large population of senior citizens is at grave risk if Hialeah erupts as a major COVID-19 hotspot."

DeSantis order relaxes rules for churches, freeing megachurch pastor to resume services  4/2/2020 Fox: "The pastor canceled his upcoming in-person services after being arrested for hosting hundreds inside his megachurch despite a Hillsborough County "safer at home" social distancing order, banning gatherings of 10 or more to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus. But Governor Ron DeSantis issued his own, statewide order Wednesday, which says the rules will be different for places of worship. Under his new order, church services are considered "essential" and there is no clear indication social distancing rules must be followed. This new executive order is giving leaders at the local level whiplash."

The best politician in America today is a city commissioner who chewed out the worst mayor in Florida 3/22/2020 Alternet: "The Mayor broke all kinds of protocol in this meeting trying to prevent Hardy from speaking, of which he skillfully called her out on. The Mayor then broke the rules to recess the meeting, walk away, and dismissively tell him “he was done”. That’s when all hell broke lose.Hardy accused city manager Michael Bornstein of “turning off people’s lights during a global health pandemic”. He said Mayor Triolo was more concerned with her relationship with Bornstein and was complicit because she refused to call an emergency meeting on measures the city could take."

Videos show Miami Beach arrests of black spring breakers slammed as racist by NAACP  3/17/2020 NBC: "The Miami-Dade chapter of the NAACP is calling for the removal of the Miami Beach police chief and city manager in response to videos showing police interactions with black spring breakers last week. In one of the viral videos, a Miami Beach police officer appears to grab a young woman by the throat after she falls onto the street following a collision with an officer. That video was uploaded to social media and has been viewed more than 390,000 times."

Cuando los bebés negros eran usados como cebo para cazar cocodrilos en Florida  11/18/2019 Strambotic 

Prosecutors Meet With Florida Teens Over Possible Hate Crime  1/26/2019 Atlanta Black Star: "Bartlett is charged so far with illegally carrying a concealed weapon, which is a felony. “We know what we saw in the video, but it goes beyond that,” said Don Horn, chief assistant Miami-Dade County state attorney. “We’re going to do everything we can to see that justice is done in this case.”

Third police officer sentenced to prison for framing black males  10/19/2018 Nation of Change: "After pleading guilty to framing innocent black men and punching a handcuffed suspect in the face, a third Florida police officer was sentenced Thursday to 27 months in prison for conspiracy to deprive a person of his civil rights and deprivation of civil rights under color of law. Two other officers have been sentenced to one year in federal prison, while their former police chief awaits sentencing next month."

Cops, courts in Miami-Dade harsher on blacks. New study details stark racial disparities.  7/19/2018 Miami Herald: "No group in Miami-Dade County gets treated more harshly in the criminal justice system than blacks, according to a joint study released Thursday by the American Civil Liberties Union and University of Miami. Researchers, who analyzed five years of data between 2010 and 2015, found stark differences across the board."

The N.R.A. Lobbyist Behind Florida’s Pro-Gun Policies  3/5/2018 New Yorker: "Last fall, a study published in JAMA Internal Medicine revealed that, in Stand Your Ground’s first decade, the number of homicides ruled legally justifiable had increased in Florida by seventy-five per cent. In one notable instance, two boat owners got into a fight and fell in the water; as one attempted to climb out, the other fatally shot him in the back of the head. A jury found the killer not guilty. Mary Anne Franks, the law professor from the University of Miami, told me that the number of justifiable homicides is likely to continue to rise. “The new amendment makes it even easier for killers who provide zero evidence of self-defense to avoid not only being convicted but being prosecuted at all,” she said."

Another Tamir Rice – Florida Cops Shoot 14-Year-Old Playing With Toy Gun  2/22/2018 Truth Fight: "An African American boy was shot by Florida police in Jacksonville. The police say he was holding a toy Airsoft gun – much like the case last year with 12-year-old Tamir Rice, in Cleveland, Ohio. Police say that the boy suffered an injury to the leg, but he is expected to survive. When asked if the child was actually violating any laws, the police told us that there were no crimes they could report at this time that he is being accused of."

The Dead Bear NO WITNESS  12/13/2017 Folio Weekly: "“Centanni would also assert that the reason he actually armed himself was because he knew Roberts to be an armed drug-dealer,” the report states. “The strong link between firearms and drug-dealing is inescapable.”"

List of people killed by police in Florida  11/22/2017 Killed by Florida Police: 66 so far in 2017, 78 in 2016

New Miami Herald Investigation Looks At Abuse In The Florida Department Of Juvenile Justice  10/8/2017 WLRN: "One of the things that we had been told again and again was that officers and youth-care workers were paying young people in honey buns and other treats as a reward for dispensing discipline on other unruly youth. And we had reason to believe, based upon what we were hearing, that that might have been what resulted in Elord’s death."

No charges to be filed in shooting death of Keegan Roberts  10/3/2017 New4Jax: "According to the disposition, the shooter approached Roberts [in Robert's own driveway] after leaving the note, Roberts exited the SUV and that's when the shooter says Roberts pointed a gun at him. The neighbor then pulled out his gun and shot three times, killing Roberts."

FLORIDA--JANUARY 1,2000 thru DECEMBER 31,2017 [Information obtained from Fatal Encounters]  9/22/2017 Killed by Florida Police: Total: 1344, with links to news stories for each.

Keegan Robert's mother and wife share about his death  9/2/2017 Facebook: "Listen to Keegan Robert's mother and wife share about his death. This is our neighbor/community member. Another mother without a son and wife without a husband. His wife did not share but she lost her baby she was carrying after her husband's death. The murderer, michael centanni IV, is on vacation. Never did a day in jail. Our State Attorney Melissa Nelson needs to charge him with murder. Please call State Attorney Melissa Nelson (904-255-2500) and ask her why this young man's murderer is still living across the street with NO CHARGES FILED. We will not rest until there's #Justice4Keegan!"

Rally held for Jacksonville man shot, killed by neighbor during dispute  8/5/2017 Action News Jax: "The victim’s wife, Eliany Diaz Roberts, and his mom, Cecillia Shepard, tell us Keegan was confronted by a neighbor who pulled the trigger on their loved one. “I want this man arrested, he’s walking around and when my daughter-in-law walks outside and she has to look at him over there laughing,” said Shepard."

JSO officer accused of pointing gun at Jacksonville pastor at traffic stop  8/4/2017 CBS: "The Jacksonville Sheriff’s Office said it is investigating allegations that one of its officers pointed a gun at a local pastor during a traffic stop. Reverend Darien Bolden Sr. says he was with his nephew at the time and that he was being questioned about tinted windows. Community leaders are saying this was racial profiling."

“GOOD OLD BOY POLITICS”  4/3/2017 Black Viewpont, Jacksonville: "Community activists like Denise Hunt and Biko Saboteur resound the growing distrust of JSO held by many in the black community. They’ve been critical of police-involved shootings and JSO’s lack of transparency and accountability. The trust issue has been exacerbated by statistics that reveal an epidemic rate of JSO-involved shootings of unarmed African Americans. Just in the last six years, Jacksonville police officers have shot 54 people—40 of them black. Statistics like these led two community groups to file formal complaints with the Justice Department to investigate JSO for excessive use of force."

Rundle Won't Charge Prison Guards Who Allegedly Boiled Schizophrenic Black Man to Death  3/17/2017 Miami New Times: "On June 23, 2012, Darren Rainey, a schizophrenic man serving time for cocaine possession, was thrown into a prison shower at the Dade Correctional Institution. The water was turned up top 180 degrees — hot enough to steep tea or cook Ramen noodles. As punishment, four corrections officers — John Fan Fan, Cornelius Thompson, Ronald Clarke and Edwina Williams — kept Rainey in that shower for two full hours. Rainey was heard screaming "Please take me out! I can’t take it anymore!” and kicking the shower door. Inmates said prison guards laughed at Rainey and shouted "Is it hot enough?""

Police said man killed by cops had a gun. His family said he had his hands up.  12/30/2016 Miami Herald: "A 21-year-old man, a new father and avid dirtbiker, was shot to death Friday night by Miami-Dade police outside a duplex in West Perrine. Family members identified the dead man as Jamal Rollins. They said police shot him five times while he stood outside his car with his hands up. A police spokesman said Rollins had a gun."

Miami shooting: Man shot by cops was lying down with hands up, lawyer says  7/21/2016 CNN: ""I'm like, 'Sir, why did you shoot me?'" Kinsey said he asked the officer. "He said to me, 'I don't know.'""

Cop shoots caretaker of autistic man playing in the street with toy truck  7/20/2016 Miami Herald 

Brevard County Sheriff's Deputy Yousef Hafza Charged With Murder Of Clarence Mahogany X Howard  6/28/2016 Brevard Times: "The Florida Department of Law Enforcement has arrested Brevard County Sheriff's Deputy, Yousef Hafza, for the charges of second degree murder with a firearm and attempted second degree murder with a firearm following an alleged road rage incident on Emerson Drive in Palm Bay, Florida on Sunday, June 19, 2016."

Cop Kills Civilian During Act of Road Rage — Officer Not Arrested, Gets Vacation Instead  6/20/2016 Free Though Project: "A 22-year-old man was shot dead in Palm Bay, Florida, by an off-duty Brevard County Sheriff’s deputy in a fit of uncontrolled road rage late Sunday morning, marking the latest in incidents involving police coming unhinged and targeting civilians. Deputy Yousef Hafza, a veteran cop with 11 years in law enforcement, shot Clarence Mahogany X. Howard in an apparent case of road rage, though details about what took place remain murky, unnamed investigators told local ABC affiliate, WFTV 9."

Clarence Mahogany X Howard, 22  6/19/2016 EBWiki: "The Florida Department of Law Enforcement is investigating after an off-duty Brevard County Sheriff's Office deputy fatally shot a 22-year-old man in an apparent road rage incident in the area of Emerson Drive and St. John's Heritage Parkway in Palm Bay."

FBI will review Jacksonville police shooting that killed suspect Vernell Bing Jr. in May  6/10/2016 Florida Times Union: "Southern Christian Leadership Conference spokesman Ben Frazier, whose organization’s June 4 statement called Bing’s death “an execution” and an unjustified police shooting, said this kind of independent assessment is imperative “to ensure accountability and trust.” “It is a move in the right direction,” Frazier said. “We don’t want to get too excited except to say that we have never been satisfied with the internal investigations.”"

Casi 60 arrestos en el primer día del festival urbano de Miami Beach  5/29/2016 Cibercuba: "No obstante, la Policía de Miami Beach percibe que hasta el momento esta fiesta espontánea que se inició el viernes y atrae a miles de personas a las calles de Miami Beach, en su mayoría afroamericanos, transcurre con normalidad y sin mayores incidentes."

On Memorial Day Weekend in Miami Beach, Black Tourists Are Second-Class Citizens  5/24/2016 Miami New Times: "The goal seems to be to rob African-Americans blind, lock up as many of them as possible, and occasionally use some for police target practice. (Remember the 2011 killing of Raymond Herisse, in which 12 officers fired more than a hundred rounds, four others were wounded, and no one was charged?) If Memorial Day weekend were treated like a convention coming to town, Miami Beach would get hotels to block off rooms and give visitors discounted rates. The city, the county, the Greater Miami Convention & Visitors Bureau, and commercial airlines would kick in money to help support the event. Government officials would work with the event promoters to provide comped rooms to celebrity entertainers and comped ballrooms for panels and events. Meanwhile, in cities like New Orleans and Toronto, government officials are rolling out the red carpet for events that cater to a predominantly black clientele."

Vernell Charles Bing Jr, 22  5/23/2016 EBWiki: "Neighborhood residents said gunfire erupted about 5:50 p.m. after a red Camaro convertible fleeing police collided with a squad car. The Camaro then crashed into the side of a building at East Ninth and Liberty streets. The Camaro driver was shot after he bailed out of the car and fled while limping, residents said."

The McDuffie Riots  5/11/2016 Miami Times: "“If the jury was half Black and half white would there have been a riot?” Dunn asked the room at HistoryMiami museum last week. “It was the most difficult thing I have seen in 75 years. It was worse than the 1926 hurricane. The hurricane damaged property. This damaged souls.”"

Focus on the harsh realities of black Miami  4/13/2016 Miami Herald: Comment by Alberto Jones - "Visit the Latin American School of Medical Sciences in Havana and the Caribbean School of Medical Sciences in Santiago de Cuba, where thousands of students from over 100 countries are trained to become physicians, nurses, technologists etc., For Free!. The main task assigned to the Medical School in Santiago de Cuba, is to train students from Africa and the Caribbean, especially from Haiti where hundreds have received their degree, are working in Haiti and probably in your community and whose goal is to graduate 100 physicians per year for the next 20 years. Does anyone really believe that our kids in Opa Locka, Miami Gardens, Overtown, Cincinnati, Flint or Chicago are untrainable and born killers? Mr. Monestime, do not fear historical Cuba haters in the Local, State and the Federal Government, most of whom are descendent of former slave-drivers and perpetrators of most of the ills of blacks in Cuba. Be consequent with your duties, seek help for our youths killing each other and learn, why in Cuba, no black person, has been gunned down on the streets, in school, the workplace or in church since 1959."

How an Orlando data scientist is helping #BlackLivesMatter make the case against police violence  3/23/2016 Orlando Weekly: "Using public records, online articles and crowdsourcing, Burghart found that in 2013, 1,271 people were killed during interactions with police. In 2014, that number increased to 1,295, and by 2015, it was 1,299. From 2008 to 2014, the average number of people killed by police was around 419 people per year, according to the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports. Why the discrepancy?"

16-Year-Old Suicidal Teen with Toy Gun Killed by Florida Police  3/23/2016 Atlanta Black Star: "A Black teen was killed Sunday night in Florida after calling police to say he was going to commit suicide. It took one hour for police to show up, and they shot and killed Robert Dentmond in front of his apartment building. Nine Gainesville Police Department officers and Alachua County Sheriff’s deputies shot at the 16-year-old in the parking lot, where bullets flew through the building and affected residents there, according to Fusion."

Basta de criminalidad policíaca en el imperio yanki  2/23/2016 Fidelista Por Siempre: Video de la matanza de un hombre desarmado -- "¿Hasta cuándo? Y el presidente de ese criminal país pretende darnos lecciones de derechos humanos…., que descaro tiene ese hombre. Primero ocúpese de su policía, que en Cuba JAMAS la policía ha asesinado a uno de sus ciudadanos. Basta de criminalidad policíaca en el imperio yanki. COMPARTIR y mostrar al mundo a estos criminales disfrazados de una "gran" democrazy."

Black Miami police officers protest Beyoncé boycott  2/20/2016 ABC: "Do whatever is necessary" to put a stop to Ortiz's "antics" and "long pattern of irresponsible behavior," as he continues to portray African-Americans "in a negative light with thinly veiled racist overtones," Moore said in the letter."

#BlackLivesMatter ignores us, some mothers say  2/2/2016 Miami Times: "Marvin Dunn, a retired Florida International University psychology professor, understands that sentiment. He said other Black men cause more killings of young Black men, even though the police involved shootings trigger the large-scale protests that capture public attention. “I agree with these mothers. Far more Black lives are taken by other Blacks than are taken by the police,” Dunn said. “The tragedies of police shootings of Blacks is indeed a critical issue, but Black on Black violence is a far more serious problem. “If we want Black lives to matter to the police, they must matter even more to us.”

A Breakdown of the 71 People Killed by Police in Florida in 2015  1/7/2016 Miami New Times: "There are some notable findings for Miami-Dade: The county had by far the most police-involved deaths, with 15 last year. The county with the next highest number was Jacksonville, with just six. The Miami-Dade Police Department led the state in deaths, with seven tied to department officers, while the City of Miami was third, with three."

Why Angela Davis Came to Miami  12/23/2015 Observer: "That a famous Communist and vocal supporter of the Cuban Revolution was coming to Miami, a city not only defined by neoliberal excess, but also ruled by anti-Castro Cuban exiles, was in itself a spectacle to behold."

The Ocoee Massacre  11/5/2015 Weekly Challenger: "The siege of Ocoee claimed numerous African-American victims. Langmaid, an African-American carpenter was beaten and castrated. One mother, named Maggie Genlack, died with her pregnant daughter while hiding in her home, their bodies found partially burned under their home. Roosevelt Barton, an African-American hiding in July Perry’s barn, was shot after the mob set fire to the barn and forced him to flee. Hattie Smith was visiting her pregnant sister-in-law in Ocoee when her sister-in-law’s home was set on fire. Smith fled, but her sister-in-law’s family was killed while they hid and waited for help that would never come."

The Counted: the definitive map of US police killings in 2015  6/4/2015 Guardian 

Fla. Prosecutors Drop More Than 36 Cases Linked to Racist Cops  4/11/2015 The Root: "The Broward County State Attorney’s Office has abandoned more than three dozen criminal cases connected to four former Fort Lauderdale police officers entangled in a racism scandal."

Florida Lynched More Black People Per Capita Than Any Other State, According to Report  2/11/2015 New Times: "Between 1877 and 1950, the report, Lynching in America: Confronting the Legacy of Racial Terror, counts 3,959 examples of "racial terror lynchings," which EJI describes as violent, public acts of torture that were tolerated by public officials and designed to intimidate black victims. The staggering tally is 700 more than previously reported and is based on research of court records, newspaper accounts, local historians, and family descendants."

Florida Lynched More Black People Per Capita Than Any Other State, According to Report  2/11/2015 New Times: ""Many people are under the wrong impression that the majority of lynchings were black males assaulting white females, but most were because black men and women were accused of stealing," University of Florida professor Jack Davis, who has written about Florida lynchings, tells New Times."

Study: White Floridians Are Pretty Racist  12/10/2014 Miami New Times: "Florida scored a 0.436 (1 would represent totally racist, 0 would be totally not racist). Granted, that's slightly less racist than the stretch of deep south state from Louisiana to South Carolina just above us, but its nothing to be proud of. We're more racist than Texas! "

Univision Fires Host Rodner Figueroa for Comparing Michelle Obama to Planet of the Apes  11/12/2014 Miami New Times: "Rodner Figueroa, best known for hosting the entertainment and gossip show Sal y Pimienta, was guesting on another show, El Gordo y la Flaca, yesterday when he compared First Lady Michelle's appearance to that of the cast of Planet of the Apes."

Déjà Vu 2002 in Florida  2/17/2012 Huffington Post: "Florida's Republican governor and GOP-led legislature are attempting to retain a stranglehold on state government and cement their control in Tallahassee for another decade. Déjà vu 2002. Just like in 2002, the GOP is ignoring the will of the people. Voters in 2010 overwhelmingly approved the Fair Districts amendments with 63 percent of the vote in a clear demand for a different process -- one free from incumbent protection and partisan advantage."

Miami's Spate of Cop Shootings of Black Men  3/25/2011 Color Lines: "The black men were all killed by Latino police officers, the New York Times reported."

Black Floridians' Burden: the Cuban Invasiontop

In 1959, "white" Cubans started emigrating to Miami on a massive scale and pushed aside the then thriving Black American and Bahamian communities, who many still remember had built Miami. Black jobs and neighborhoods were taken over by the federally financed refugees while Blacks were relegated to Overtown, Liberty City, and Opa-Locka, among others.  Until then Overtown in particular had a rich history and was called the Harlem of the South, it is no longer, though that is likely due to the Feds passing I-95 through there. Overall, there should be a good reparations case against the Federal Government for this ethnic cleansing that started only 60 years ago.

Cubans coming to Miami continued to be mostly of Ibero-Spanish origin until Mariel in 1980 and the balseros who followed. Even then, many Black Cubans blended in with Black Americans or moved to New Jersey and New York, rejected by their white Cuban counterparts. This was recently referenced in the Academy Award winning film, Moonlight: “Lotta black folks in Cuba but you wouldn’t know it from being here [in Miami].” (How Oscar Favorite ‘Moonlight’ Subtly Illuminates the Erasure of Miami’s Black Cubans  1/6/2017 Remezcla). This same article references a 2016 book, Miami’s Forgotten Cubans  by Alan A. Aja, which is one of the few studies of AfroCubans in Miami.

From the start of the Cuban invasion, the two wealthiest and most important Cuban American families, the Bacardis and the Fanjuls, who own Domino Sugar, funded terrorist groups such as Alpha 66 that attacked Cuba repeatedly and killed over 3,000 civilians. They form the exiled plantocracy, complete with their stable of politicians: the Diaz Balarts, Ileana Ross Lehtinen, Marco Rubio and their cohorts.

Throughout this process, many Black Americans were killed every year by Florida police, whose officers were increasingly Cuban Americans or Latinos.

In 1990, the Miami City Commission rescinded a proclamation welcoming Nelson Mandela to the city during his tour of the U.S. after his release from prison in South Africa. The city's Cuban-American mayor and four other Cuban-American mayors from the area publicly criticized Mandela for not denouncing human rights violations in Cuba. Of course they ignored the fact that Mandela was out of jail because of the Cuban victory in Southern Africa. The response from Black Miami, then 21% of Miami's 359,000 inhabitants, was swift: they declared a national boycott that cost Miami anywhere from $40 million to $3 billion in lost revenue and forced a settlement 3 years later.

As more and more balseros or raft people poured in from Cuba throughout the 90's, US intel agencies took notice that many were Black and sent out memos to their Cuban American client organizations to start integrating Black Cubans in a classic imperial divide and conquer approach. CIA agent Jose Basulto took the lead and trained his people in nonviolent protests at the Martin Luther King Institute (Invoking MLK and Rosa Parks in Cuban Exile Politics  5/30/2009). Having devastated Black Miami, the exiled Cuban plantocracy appropriated US Civil Rights icons in their struggle to regain influence over the now largely Black homeland. The exiles are using race as their main wedge issue to try and destabilize Cuba, and we have been tracking this since at least 2001.

These facts are not in dispute. The real question is why this whole process, especially the ethnic cleansing of Miami, has been so ignored, both in Cuba and the US, and what can be done about that. This ignoring has already caused problems by making the Cuban rap and hip-hop community vulnerable to persuasion and money from Miami, USAID, and NED, leading to needles state repression.

-- Andy Petit

The White Man's Burden (1899)
Rudyard Kipling

Take up the White Man's burden,
Send forth the best ye breed
Go bind your sons to exile,
to serve your captives' need;
To wait in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild—
Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
Half-devil and half-child.

La carga de los floridanos negros: la invasión cubanatop

En 1959, muchos cubanos "blancos" comenzaron a emigrar a Miami y dejaron de lado a las entonces prósperas comunidades afroamericanas y bahameñas, que se acuerdan bien como habían construido a Miami. Los negros y sus barrios fueron asumidos por los refugiados financiados por el gobierno federal, mientras que los negros fueron relegados a Overtown, Liberty City y Opa-Locka, entre otros. Overtown en particular tiene una historia rica y fue llamado el Harlem del Sur, pero no lo es ahora, aunque esto es mas la culpa del gobierno federal directamente, que paso la autopista I-95 en medio del barrio.  Pero en general, debe haber un buen caso de reparaciones con el gobierno federal por esta limpieza étnica que comenzó hace solo 60 años.

Los cubanos que vinieron a Miami siguieron siendo en gran parte de origen ibero-español hasta la onda de Mariel en 1980 y los balseros que siguieron. Incluso entonces, muchos cubanos negros se mezclaron con negros americanos o se mudaron a Nueva Jersey y Nueva York, rechazados por sus homólogos cubanos blancos. Esto fue recientemente mencionado en la película ganadora del Premio de la Academia, Moonlight: "Mucha gente negra en Cuba, pero no lo sabrías por estar aquí [en Miami]." (How Oscar Favorite ‘Moonlight’ Subtly Illuminates the Erasure of Miami’s Black Cubans  1/6/2017 Remezcla). Este mismo artículo hace referencia a un libro de 2016, Miami's Forgotten Cubans de Alan A. Aja, que es uno de los pocos estudios de los AfroCubanos en Miami.

Desde el comienzo de la invasión cubana, las dos familias cubano-americanas más ricas e importantes, los Bacardis y los Fanjuls, propietarios de Domino Sugar, financiaron grupos terroristas como Alpha 66 que atacaron a Cuba y mataron a más de 3.000 civiles. Ellos forman la plantocracia en el exilio, con su conjunto de políticos: los Diaz Balarts, Ileana Ross Lehtinen, Marco Rubio y sus cohortes.

A lo largo de este proceso, muchos estadounidenses negros fueron asesinados cada año por la policía de la Florida, cuyos oficiales eran cada vez más cubano-americanos o latinos.

En 1990, la Comisión de la Ciudad de Miami rescindió una proclama dando la bienvenida a Nelson Mandela a la ciudad durante su gira por los Estados Unidos después de su liberación de la prisión en Sudáfrica. El alcalde cubano-americano de Miami y otros cuatro alcaldes cubano-americanos de la zona criticaron públicamente a Mandela por no denunciar las violaciones de los derechos humanos en Cuba. Por supuesto, ignoraron el hecho de que Mandela estaba fuera de la cárcel debido a la victoria cubana en el sur de África. La respuesta de Black Miami, entonces el 21% de los 359.000 habitantes de Miami, fue rápida: declararon un boicot nacional que costó a Miami de $40 millones a $3 mil milliones en ingresos perdidos y obligó a un acuerdo 3 años después.

A medida que más y más balseros llegaban de Cuba a lo largo de los años 90, las agencias de inteligencia estadounidenses advirtieron que muchos eran negros y enviaron memorandos a sus organizaciones clientelares cubanas para comenzar a integrar a los cubanos negros en una clásica división imperial. El agente de la CIA, José Basulto, tomó la iniciativa y entrenó a su gente en protestas no violentas en el Instituto Martin Luther King (Invoking MLK and Rosa Parks in Cuban Exile Politics  5/30/2009). Después de haber devastado a Black Miami, la plantocracia cubana exiliada se apropió de los iconos de los Derechos Civiles de los Estados Unidos en su lucha por recuperar la influencia sobre su patria hoy en gran parte negra. Los exiliados están utilizando la raza como su principal problema para tratar de desestabilizar a Cuba, y hemos estado rastreando esto desde al menos 2001.

Estos hechos no están en disputa. La verdadera pregunta es por qué todo este proceso ha sido tan ignorado, tanto en Cuba como en los Estados Unidos, y qué se puede hacer al respecto. Esta ignorancia intencional ya ha causado problemas al hacer que la comunidad de rap y hip-hop cubana sea vulnerable a la persuasión y el dinero de Miami, USAID y NED, lo que lleva a una represión estatal innecesaria.

-- Andy Petit

Excerpt from Back to the Future: African-Americans and Cuba in the Time(s) of Race  12/2/2011 top
Contributions in Black Studies: published in 1994, by Lisa Brock


While there has been substantial scholarship on the U.S. domination of Cuba, projects devoted to uncovering the historical connections between African-Americans and Cuba have been minimal. Aside from Willard Gatewood's several volumes, Johnnetta Cole's short 1977 article on African-American solidarity with Cuba, and Rosemari Mealy's 1992 collection of testimonials on Fidel and Malcolm, there is little else.  In fact, given African-American sentiments concerning the Cuban-American community today, it is difficult for one to believe that any feelings of closeness ever existed.

African-Americans under age forty - like their peers - have come to know Cubans through the opinions and activities of Cuban emigres in Miami. Enraged at the revolution, the latter have been promoted and given political clout by successive U.S. administrations and the national media. Unlike previous Cuban-American populations, Cubans in Florida are largely White and drawn from Cuba's pre-revolutionary elite. Implicated in police brutality and overtly racist politics, they have attained dispropor- tionate power in Florida. 4 Police shootings have incited Blacks in Miami to riot in the section known as Liberty City. The differential treatment of Haitian and Cuban emigres has prompted persistent demonstrations. Haitians, when not turned back, are held for months in detention camps while Cubans often attain political asylum within twenty- four hours.

Tensions peaked in 1990 when Miami mayor Xavier Suarez, a Cuban- American, became the only United States official to refuse to greet African National Congress head Nelson Mandela-whose organization was known for its ties to Cuba- when he visited that city. Mandela had been invited to attend the national convention of the American Federation of State and Municipal Employees, a trade union long active in the anti-apartheid struggle. Mayor Suarez' position so angered the trade unionists and Black residents of Miami that they called for a convention boycott of Miami. The boycott was effectively sustained for three years and called off only when the city's politicians negotiated a deal with prominent Blacks for greater Black empowerment. In addition, the rightist Cuban American National Foundation, through its ties to the Heritage Foundation, became known for its support of right-wing contra wars in southern Africa.

Many African-Americans have only known Cuba through such experiences, creating for them a somewhat muddled assumption that all Cubans are fascist and racist. The 1989 publication of Carlos Moore's Castro, the Blacks and Africa, added fuel to this fire by attacking Fidel Castro and the Cuban revolution as consciously racist. A few prominent African-Americans such as Maya Angelou and St. Clair Drake endorsed the book, which boosted readership in the Black community. Even though Moore's book was of poor scholarship and based more on hearsay than in-depth analysis, to it kneaded an already ethnically and ideologically charged situation. But more importantly, the work has served to whittle away at some of the support base of the Cuban revolution in the Black community. Paradoxically, it has served to relocate some African-Americans to the counter-revolutionary side of the U.S. government on the one hand, and on the other, bolstered the Congressional Black Caucus in its call for an end to the blockade. The CBC has argued that only an end to the United States blockade can better the lives of Black Cubans.


Links/Enlaces top


Police Killings in Florida

The 1923 Rosewood Massacre

South Florida Black Journalists Association

Visit Florida  Where to Learn About Florida's Black History

History of Florida/Modern Florida, 1900-1945, WikiBooks


Dr Marvin Dunn, historian, organizer

Black History In Early Miami

History of Overtown

Liberty Square Rising

Look Back at Miami’s Vibrant African American and Caribbean Heritage, Miami and Beaches
Black Archives, Miami

The Bahamian Influence on the South Florida Shotgun House, Kisla Foundation
"If the family represents the soul of the community, then the house is the soul's vessel. In West African culture, religious rituals made clear the belief that the traditional clay artifact – the home – contained the soul of the ancestors. In many ways, the simple nature of the shotgun houses – long, straight and narrow – found in Miami and other southern cities, affirms the lives of intimacy that the Bahamian builders' West African ancestors led. The structure of the shotgun house is illustrative of cultures where concepts of personal space suggest a closeness among family members that was uncommon in Western societies."

Miami, 1959 - 1980, USC

Miami History, Soul of America

"The federal government designated Miami to be the point of embarkation and assistance for Cuban immigrants. To use a chess metaphor it was a “Queen” in the Cold War Cuba Policy directed at Russia. Towards America’s Cold War objective, the U.S. government awarded 50 times the amount of business loans and grants to immigrant Cuban businesspersons than to black Miamians in the 1960s. The federal government also persuaded Miami, Dade County and Florida officials to award public service jobs and more home loans to Cuban immigrants. As a result, U.S. government leaders could parade successful Cuban immigrants to Latin America as an example that Democratic-Capitalism works better than Communist-Dictatorship.

Anglo-Americans could own businesses and live anywhere in South Florida. Like the rest of America, many chose new suburban communities with larger homes, new malls and jobs nearby. New freeways to suburban communities were built. The first purpose of the Interstate Highway System was to easily transport military equipment and forces nationwide, so extending I-95 Freeway to Miami was a top priority. Given the unprecedented geo-political-racial-transportation climate, swift policy decisions with bad unintended consequences were inevitable.

Since Black Miami was a Pawn on the chessboard of Cold War Cuba Policy, federal and state governments permitted construction of a major freeway interchange in the heart of economically stable Overtown. The freeway interchange had a dagger-like effect on the black community. With only historic churches remaining as anchors, Overtown became a worn-out husk of its former self. Middleclass residents moved from Overtown to Broward County, points north or out of state. City officials offered the poorest Overtown residents opportunity for public housing in Liberty City. As a unincorporated district without a tax base or political power, despair in the concentrated poverty of Liberty City was palpable.

The federal, state and city government did not develop a comprehensive plan to preserve & enhance black businesses and middleclass homes in and adjacent to Overtown concurrent with Cuban Immigrant assistance. When urbanologists and historians look back on 1959-1990 Miami, they can easily document how Cold War Cuba Policy destabilized Miami’s black community."


A Timeline: Black History in the Miami Valley 1798 to 2001, Dayton Daily News


Orlando Minority Media Outlets

Central Florida Black Journailst Association

Cuba and Florida

The US, the Exiled Plantocracy, and Race

Cuba's Plantocracy: Cuban American business and terrorism

Questions about Black Cubans in Miami,

Ife-Ile Afro-Cuban Dance Company, Miami


AfroCubans in the UStop

Alan A. Aja
Miami’s Forgotten Cubans
Race, Racialization, and the Miami Afro-Cuban Experience, Palgrave MacMillan, 2016

This book explores the reception experiences of post-1958 Afro-Cubans in South Florida in relation to their similarly situated “white” Cuban compatriots. Utilizing interviews, ethnographic observations, and applying Census data analyses, Aja begins not with the more socially diverse 1980 Mariel boatlift, but earlier, documenting that a small number of middle-class Afro-Cuban exiles defied predominant settlement patterns in the 1960 and 70s, attempting to immerse themselves in the newly formed but ultimately racially exclusive “ethnic enclave.” Confronting a local Miami Cuban “white wall” and anti-black Southern racism subsumed within an intra-group “success” myth that equally holds Cubans and other Latin Americans hail from “racial democracies,” black Cubans immigrants and their children, including subsequent waves of arrival and return-migrants, found themselves negotiating the boundaries of being both “black” and “Latino” in the United States.

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Michelle Hay
"I've Been Black In Two Countries": Black Cuban Views on Race in the US, 2009

Hay describes how black Cubans experience racism on two levels. Cuban racism might result in less access for black Cubans to their group's resources, including protection within Cuban enclaves from society-wide discrimination. In society at large, black Cubans are below white Cubans on every socioeconomic indicator. Rejected by their white co-ethnics, black Cubans are welcomed by other groups of African descent. Many hold similar political views as African Americans. Identifying with African Americans neither negatively affects social mobility nor leads to a rejection of mainstream values and norms. Those who identified most with African Americans were college-educated professionals, some of whom credited African American traditions for their achievements, their affirming feeling about blackness, and their ability to negotiate racism.

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Monika Gosin

Primary research interests include: Afro Cuban and other Afro Latino immigration experiences in the U.S.; African American and Latino relations; immigrant incorporation into US society. My current research focuses on the impact of two waves of Cuban immigration, the 1980 Mariel boatlift and the 1994 Balsero crisis, on the African American and Cuban exile communities in Miami. The project also foregrounds the experiences of Afro-Cubans in the U.S., a demographic which grew in the course of these migration waves. This work is the basis for a broader study utilizing data from interviews I previously conducted in Miami, Los Angeles, and Cuba to examine the effect of migration experiences on Afro-Cuban notions of race and identity; experiences which challenge U.S. and Latin American racial and ethnic categories, as well as notions of whiteness, Pan-Africanism, and of Pan-Latinidad.  --

Gosin, Monika. 2017. "A Bitter Diversion: Afro-Cuban Immigrants, Race, and Every day-Life Resistance." Latino Studies.15:4-28.

The Death of “la Reina de la Salsa:” Celia Cruz and the Mythification of the Black Woman

Antonio Lopez

Unbecoming Blackness
The Diaspora Cultures of Afro-Cuban America   

In Unbecoming Blackness, Antonio López uncovers an important, otherwise unrecognized century-long archive of literature and performance that reveals Cuban America as a space of overlapping Cuban and African diasporic experiences.

López shows how Afro-Cuban writers and performers in the U.S. align Cuban black and mulatto identities, often subsumed in the mixed-race and postracial Cuban national imaginaries, with the material and symbolic blackness of African Americans and other Afro-Latinas/os. In the works of Alberto O’Farrill, Eusebia Cosme, Rómulo Lachatañeré, and others, Afro-Cubanness articulates the African diasporic experience in ways that deprive negro and mulato configurations of an exclusive link with Cuban nationalism. Instead, what is invoked is an “unbecoming” relationship between Afro-Cubans in the U.S and their domestic black counterparts. The transformations in Cuban racial identity across the hemisphere, represented powerfully in the literary and performance cultures of Afro-Cubans in the U.S., provide the fullest account of a transnational Cuba, one in which the Cuban American emerges as Afro-Cuban-American, and the Latino as Afro-Latino.


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