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Eyes on the Prize: Kwame Ture Interview (1986)
Kwame Ture, tremendo luchador

Kwame Ture, known in the 60's as Stokely Charmichael and the formulator of the phrase "Black Power," paid many visits to Cuba and was under the personal protection of Cuban forces wherever in the world he happened to be, as he discussed in his last letter.

It is rumored that he got his guerreros in Cuba from a babalawo in Havana. At his funeral in Guinea, he was honored with a large cow for the funeral sacrifices sent by Lybia's Muammar Al Qathafi, who had been developing a new Africa oriented policy.  Such a funeral sacrifice among West African people is designed not to speed the person on to the ancestors but to entice their spirit to stay here with the living.

Kwame was personally interested in many projects in Cuba, including those of film maker Gloria Rolando, who he thought was an important player in the struggle.

Kwame took his name from Kwame Nkrumah, the great pan-africanist leader of Ghana, and Sekou Ture, the leader of Guiné. He founded the AAPRP, the All African People's Revolutionary Party (

Last Letter on Lybia and Africa

Announcement of his passing, memorial fund

Mother of Kwame Ture Launches Worldwide Recruitment and Fundraisingup.gif (123 bytes)

Sent: Thursday, December 02, 1999 9:46 AM
Subject: Mother of Kwame Ture Launches Worldwide Recruitment and Fundraising Drive

Kwame Ture Work-Study Institute and Library
1819 East 71st Street
Chicago, IL 60649
Tel: (773) 324-0494 - Fax: (773) 324-6678

December 4, 1999

Dear Friend and Supporter of Kwame Ture:

My name is Mabel Carmichael. Two generations of Movement youth know me as "May Charles." Kwame Ture (also known as Stokely Carmichael) is my son. Fifty-eight years ago, I brought Kwame into this world. Thirty nine years ago, I gave him to the people, to the Movement, to the Nonviolent Action Group at Howard University and the Student Non-violent
Coordinating Committee, its parent organization. The rest is history!

It has been one year since Kwame died, and I would like to tell you about some of our activities and achievements this past year. You have perhaps already heard, that Kwame asked me, on his deathbed in the hospital in which he died in Conakry, to build a library so that his books and papers could stay in Africa, in Guinea, and be accessible to future generations of students and youth. I promised him that I would, with God's help, build that library, here in Conakry. We have already started, little by little, and we need and ask for your help!

Over the past few months, our family has traveled to a number of events worldwide, in order to receive posthumous awards and recognition on Kwame's behalf. Some of the highlights include traveling to:

Washington, DC in May, to accept an honorary Ph.D. from Howard University. Later that evening, the Howard University Student Association hosted a community reception and dinner at New Bethel Baptist Church. Mr. Rock Newman and Rev. Walter Fauntroy co-sponsored this community-based event. On Monday, Dr. Dorothy Height and the National Council of Negro Women hosted a reception at their National Headquarters. Mrs. Jackie Jackson (Rev. Jesse Jackson's wife), Mrs. Cora Masters Barry (Mayor Marion Barry's wife), Dr. Barbara Skinner, Ms. Julienne Malveaux and a host of other women were present. Contributions were made at both events towards the building of the Institute and Library.

Banjul, Gambia in June, to accept a posthumous award from the Government of Gambia during the "4th Annual Roots Homecoming Festival."

Port of Spain, Trinidad in August, to receive recognition by the Emancipation Support Committee at its annual Emancipation Celebration and Pan-African Conference.

Dublin, Ireland in August, to receive recognition by Sein Fein, and the Irish Republican Movement.

Since our return to Conakry two months ago, with God's blessings, we have completed work on Kwame's gravesite. On November 15th, the date that Kwame died, members of our family who are in Guinea, a number of Kwame's close friends and associates, and 25 students from the Gamal Abdel Nasser University held a "Gravesite Ceremony" in Kwame's honor. The Ambassadors of Libya, Cuba and Palestine were present and offered brief remarks. We then walked to the home of El Hadjj Thiam and family, one of Kwame's friends for the past thirty years, where a cow was sacrificed and its meat given to the poor, ten Moslem Marabouts read from the Koran, and a sumptuous feast was enjoyed by all. The Sisters and family of President Ahmed Sekou Toure stopped by to pay their respects.

On November 20th, the students at the Gamal Abdel Nasser University, and the Guinee-Conakry Chapter of the All-African People's Revolutionary Party held a Symposium to discuss "Kwame Ture, the Man, his Works, and his Philosophical and Political Vision for the Continent of Africa."

On November 21st, three hundred and seventy days after Kwame's death, we moved into a new house that will serve as the headquarters of the Kwame Ture Work-Study Institute and Library, until we can acquire a small piece of land here in Conakry, upon which to build. We are presently very busy organizing and cataloguing the library's core holdings, which include in excess of 1,700 of Kwame's books (126 linear feet), and more than 125 magazine boxes (144 linear feet) of Kwame's personal papers, letters, manuscripts, photographs and recordings.

More than 100 cartons of Kwame's intellectual property await shipment here to Conakry. Dozens of Kwame's former associates in the Non-violent Action Group, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, the Lowndes County Freedom Organization, the Black Panther Party, the Movement to Take Kwame Nkrumah Back to Ghana, the Democratic Party of Guinea and the All-African People's Revolutionary Party have agreed to donate their personal papers and archives to the Library as well.

In addition, Kwame authorized us to file a comprehensive and massive Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request with every level and branch of the United States government. The responses from the federal level and branches are pouring in. We estimate that Kwame's FOIA files will exceed one million pages. They will be housed here in Conakry, and at several of the many universities and libraries in Africa and the world, such as Howard University in Washington, DC and the Gamal Abdel Nasser University in Conakry, with which we hope to affiliate. We know that Kwame is smiling at the work that has been done so far. This is just the beginning!

I am an eighty-year old woman, living on a fixed income. I can not build Kwame's institute and library alone! I need and ask for your help, personally, materially and financially. I brought Kwame into this world, and gave him to the Movement thirty-nine years ago. He chose to work, study, struggle, suffer and die for Africa, and her children who are scattered in every corner of the world. I supported him as best I could, and continue to do so. Kwame never valued or sought money or material things. He died like he lived, without two nickels to rub together. But, he was and remains rich in a worldwide network of friends and supporters like you.

With your help, and God's, the Kwame Ture Work-Study Institute and Library will become the largest non-governmental and non-profit repository in the world, of primary source material by and about Kwame Ture, and the movements and organizations with which he worked. It will also be a Pan-African and International work-study institute that will help educate, nurture and train future generations of students and youth, of scholars and organizers, and inspire them to give service to Africa and other Oppressed Peoples in every corner of the world.

Today, December 4, 1999, we are launching a worldwide campaign to recruit 1,092 members and raise $364,000 in one year, that's 3 new members and $1,000 each day. You can help us meet this modest goal, by:

Endorsing the Kwame Ture Work-Study Institute and Library, and becoming a Charter Member. Membership is open to all progressive and revolutionary governments, institutions, organizations, movements and individuals in Africa and the world; and is free.

Making a tax-exempt contribution to our "Building Fund", and to help defray the costs of our "Freedom of Information Act" and "Oral History Documentation" Projects. Supporters are asked to contribute a minimum of $50 US. Sponsors are asked to contribute a minimum of $100 US. Sustainers are asked to contribute a minimum of $250 US. Patrons are asked
to contribute a minimum of $500 US. Other contributions will be greatly appreciated. All donations are tax deductible.

Donating a copy of any material, i.e. correspondence, photographs, audio-visual tapes, films, books, theses, dissertations, posters, buttons, t-shirts, newspaper and magazine articles, or other memorabilia that you might have by or about Kwame Ture, and the movements and organizations with which he worked. All intellectual property rights, copyrights, privacy rights and publicity rights will be fully respected and protected.

Please send your contributions, (financial and material) to the Kwame Ture Work-Study Institute and Library, c/o the Black United Fund of Illinois, Inc., 1809 East 71st Street, Chicago, IL 60649. Address all correspondence to the attention of Mr.  Henry English, President and CEO of the Black United Front of Illinois, Inc. He also serves as the Treasurer of the Kwame Ture Work-Study Institute and Library.

To keep in touch with how we are doing with this recruitment and fund raising campaign, please subscribe to our electronic discussion group for the Kwame Ture Work-Study Institute and Library. Just send us an email at:

Thank you in advance for endorsing, becoming a Charter Member, and making your tax-exempt contribution. We ask that you forward this letter to at least ten other people or organizations whom we might have missed, or who you think might be interested in helping us fulfill Kwame's dying request.

<<Mabel Carmichael>>
Mabel Carmichael (May Charles)
Chairperson of the
Kwame Ture Work-Study Institute and Library

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Howard University awards Honorary Ph.D. To Kwame Ture on May 8th, memorial Work Study Institute and Library in Guinee

For Immediate Release Worldwide


Friday, April 30, 1999

Howard University Will Award Honorary Ph.D. To Kwame Ture On May 8th, Memorial Work Study Institute and Library to be built in Guinee

Howard University in Washington, DC will award an honorary Ph.D. to Kwame Ture, formerly known as Stokely Carmichael, at its 131st Commencement Exercise on May 8, 1999 in Washington, DC. Howard University's TV and radio stations will broadcast the ceremony live. Other media sources are encouraged to cover the event as well.

Howard University student trustees, Randy Short and Jonathan Hutto led the drive to secure the honorary degree for Kwame. They were supported in their quest by the Howard University Faculty Senate, the Hilltop campus newspaper, Julian Bond, Dick Gregory, Dr. C Delores Tucker, Rev. CT Vivian, Professor Michael Eric Dyson, Dr. James Cone, Elaine Jones, Joe Madison, Dr. Ronald Walters, Lawrence Guyot and others.

Mrs. Mable Carmichael, Kwame’s 80-year old mother, will attend the Commencement Exercise and accept this honor on behalf of Kwame, and on behalf of progressive and revolutionary students and youth, and their mothers and grandmothers, worldwide. May Charles, as she is affectionately called by two generations of movement organizers and activists, is spearheading a worldwide effort to build, in fulfillment of Kwame’s final wishes, a Work-Study Institute and Library in his name in Conakry, Guinea where he lived and worked for the past 30 years.

Later that evening at 7:00 p.m., Mrs. Carmichael will be honored at a community gathering to celebrate this prestigious honor at the New Bethel Baptist Church located at 9th and S Streets NW in Washington, DC.

This gathering is being organized by Jonathan Hutto and Randy Short, (Howard University Student Trustees), Rock Newman (Community activist), the All-African People's Revolutionary Party and the All-African Women's Revolutionary Union, the Howard University Faculty Senate, the Howard University Student Government Association, and a host of other organizations and activists. Rock Newman will serve as the Honorary Chairperson of this gathering. The event is free and open to the public, and everyone is encouraged to attend.

Mrs. Carmichael will take this opportunity to express her thanks to the People and the Movement for the tremendous support, encouragement and love that they gave to Kwame over the past four decades. She will extend her families’ sympathy to all present, because she knows that you too have suffered a great loss. She will express her desire to stay in touch with every one of Kwame’s extended family, and will be appreciative of your support and help in her effort to build the Kwame Ture Work-Study Institute and Library.

This is the second occasion in which an accredited University has awarded an honorary Ph.D. to Kwame Ture. Shaw University in Raleigh, NC awarded his first honorary degree in 1971. Kwame’s latest honorary degree from Howard University is a well deserved acknowledgment of his 40 years of service, sacrifice and suffering. Listed are a few of his many achievements:

Kwame graduated from Howard in 1964 with a Bachelor's Degree in Philosophy. While at Howard, he joined and worked with the Nonviolent Action Group (NAG) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and participated in numerous demonstrations, including the "Freedom Rides."

Upon graduation, Kwame decided to work for SNCC full time, helping build the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), the Lowndes County Freedom Organization (LCFO), and the Black Panther Party (BPP). He was elected chairman of SNCC in 1966, and served as the honorary Prime Minister of the BPP from 1968 to 1969. He was also a member of the Central Committees of the All-African People's Revolutionary party and the Democratic Party of Guinea (RDA).

In 1969, at the invitation of Presidents Kwame Nkrumah and Ahmed Seku Ture, Kwame moved to Guinea in West Africa to live and continue his work with the African and World Revolution. While living in Guinea, he joined the Democratic Party of Guinea (PDG-RDA) and helped organize the All-African People's Revolutionary Party (A-APRP). He also supported and worked with African, Native American, Chicano, Palestinian, Arab, Irish, Vietnamese, Cuban, Libyan and other progressive and revolutionary movements and organizations throughout the world. He made his final transition on November 15, 1998 because of complications of prostate cancer at age 57.

Kwame continued to work, study and struggle until the last day, the last hour, the last minute and the last second of his life. He continues to live as a revolutionary and a Pan-Africanist, who studied, worked and struggled all of his life for African and other oppressed peoples worldwide, especially their students, youth and women.

It is fitting that we pledge ourselves to continue his work and memorialize him. We can all help by endorsing and supporting (materially and financially) his mother's efforts to build the Kwame Ture Work-Study Institute and Library in Conakry, Guinea. We also ask all progressive forces worldwide to organize campus based and community based actives and events honoring Kwame building a worldwide movement to continue and expand his work.

Mrs. Carmichael asks all individuals and organizations who possess any type of correspondence, photographs, audio or video tapes, films, books, thesis, dissertations, newspaper and magazine articles, or other memorabilia by or about Kwame, to donate a copy to the Kwame Ture Work-Study Institute and Library, so that they can be housed in Conakry with his works. Financial contributions will also be greatly appreciated.

Please send all materials, donations and/or tax-exempt contributions to the Kwame Ture Work-Study Institute and Library, c/o the Black United Fund of Illinois, 1809 East 71st Street, Chicago, IL 60649. Telephone: (773) 324-0494. E-mail:

Kwame was many things to many people, however, we can all agree that he was honest, committed, dedicated, relentless and self-sacrificing in the struggle. The spirit of Kwame lives on. His words and action, work, study and struggle will never die. In the name and spirit of Kwame we will organize, organize, organize, and always stay Ready for the Revolution!

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Last letter: on going to Libya

Hell Yes, We are Going to Libya!
A Declaration to Africa and the World
Date: 5 November, 1998

From: Kwame Ture (formerly known as Stokely Carmichael)
Member of the Central Committee of the All-African People's Revolutionary Party and the Democratic Party of Guinea

Priority: To be embargoed until we board the plane

We know that one of the greatest crimes an individual can commit is that of being ungrateful.

I have made many errors, but of one thing I am certain, my ability to continue serving in the African and World Revolution is greatly attributed to a number of contributions that I have received from the masses of African and other Oppressed Peoples worldwide. We cite here just a few examples.

In 1966, when I had just been elected Chairperson of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee, my first official act, was to visit the Honorable Elijah Muhammad and the Nation of Islam. It is then that he ordered all members of the Fruit of Islam to protect me wherever I traveled, anywhere in the world. I am still under that umbrella of protection today, here in Africa, in Guinea. I could never be ungrateful to the Nation of Islam, to the Honorable Elijah Muhammad, nor to his incarnation - Minister Louis Farrakhan.

In 1967, U.S. imperialism was seriously planning to assassinate me. It still is, this time by an FBI induced cancer, the latest in the white man's arsenal of chemical and biological warfare, as I am more determined to destroy it today than in 1967. It was Fidel Castro who before the OLAS Conference said "if imperialism touches one grain of hair on his head, we shall not let the fact pass without retaliation. " It was he, who on his own behalf, asked them all to stay in contact with me when I returned to the United States to offer me protection. I could never be ungrateful to the People of Cuba nor to Cuba's incarnation - Fidel Castro.

In 1967, Presidents Ahmed Seku Ture and Kwame Nkrumah, through the intercession of Shirley Graham DuBois, invited me to attend the 8th Congress of the Democratic Party of Guinea (RDA). They invited me to live, work, study and struggle here in Guinea, an invitation which I readily accepted, despite tremendous criticism from almost every quarter. Thirty years later, I still live in Guinea, working, studying and struggling for the African Revolution. And I will continue to do so until the last second, of the last minute, of the last hour, of the last day. And it is my wish to sleep here in Guinea, eternally. I could never be ungrateful to the People of Guinea, nor Guinea's and Africa's incarnations - Ahmed Seku Ture and Kwame Nkrumah.

Today, on behalf of the All-African People's Revolutionary Party (A-APRP), I am honored to accept a invitation that has been extended by Brother Muammar Al Qathafi and the People of the Libyan Jamahiriya to travel to Tripoli, which is in Africa, so that they might assist me in my eternal fight, against an unyielding enemy. It would be ungrateful, and unAfrican for me to refuse.

We wish to thank Brother Muammar and the People of the Libyan Jamahiriya for sending us this hospital plane which I, and members of my biological, ideological and social family now board. his act is just one more act of an infinite number of Brother Muammar's and the Libyan People's contributions to African and World Humanity. I am sure I will never be ungrateful to the revolutionary People of the Libyan Jamahiriya as long as I live, as I shall remain eternally steadfast and faithful to revolutionary principles. And I know that my biological and ideological family will remain steadfast and faithful as well.

Sisters and Brother, Comrades, we know that the Cuban and Libyan Revolutions have a base of solid support among the Africans in United States and around the world. Imperialism also knows this. This support has been earned by Cuba and Libya, at great sacrifice. All Africans in the United States know anytime imperialism is hunting an African Revolutionary, if they make it to Cuba, as in baseball, they are home safe. From Robert Williams to Assata Shakur, Cuba has paid a heavy price as a haven for Revolutionaries throughout the world. We also know, first hand, Libya's contributions to, and protection of African and other Revolutionaries worldwide. U.S. imperialism is doing everything possible to corrode Cuba's and Libya's support among the Africans in the United States and the world.

Today, we board a hospital plane to travel nonstop from Conakry to Tripoli, Libya, a revolutionary country, an African country. All of our Brother, Sister and Allied Organizations, worldwide, have been requested by our Party, the All-African People's Revolutionary Party, to join us in Tripoli; and on our return from Tripoli to Conakry. Travel to a revolutionary country, especially one in Africa, must lead to concrete action to advance the African and World Revolution. We have a heightened responsibility to help protect Cuba and Libya at this time. We must move before U.S. imperialism is strengthened and attacks, not after, by strengthening our people ideologically and practically now. We must cement Cuba and Libya to Africa, and to African People worldwide, and vice versa.

We must make it clear, that an embargo and travel ban against Cuba and Libya, is an embargo and travel ban against Africa and against 1 billion African People who are scattered, suffering and struggling in every corner of the world. We must make it crystal clear that if you attack

Cuba and Libya, you attack all African People worldwide, and we must break U.S. imperialism's hands off Cuba and Libya. We must end this illegal and immoral embargo and travel ban now. And with this act, by our example of boarding this hospital plane, we declare an end, once and for all, to this illegal and immoral embargo and travel ban, an end to this latest crime against African and World Humanity.

As children, we joined the Freedom Rides to break the back of segregation and apartheid in interstate transportation in the United States. Today, we ride on the front of the bus, we charter buses to take one million men, women and children to marches in Washington, Philadelphia, New York and Atlanta. And we will never turn back.

In the 1960's, we said "Hell No, we won't go" to Vietnam, to fight against a people who never called us a nigger, and we didn't go. We said that they would defeat U.S. imperialism, and the heroic Vietnamese People, under the sterling example and leadership of the eternal Ho Chi Minh did.

Today, we say "Hell yes, we are going to Libya." We are traveling nonstop, all the way, from Conakry to Tripoli, and we warn the U.S. government not to interfere. We are certain today, that the people of Cuba and Libya, under the steadfast leadership of Fidel Castro and Muammar Qathafi will be victorious. The embargo and travel ban against Libya, Cuba, North Sudan, Korea, Iraq and Iran is finished, as of this day. The All-African People's Revolutionary Party is honored to make our humble contribution towards this end. We thank you. As African youth worldwide say, "the beat goes on."

As always, we remain Ready for Revolution!

Kwame Ture
Central Committee Member of the All-African People's Revolutionary Party and the Democratic Party of Guinea
Conakry, Guinea

Announcement of his passing, Medical Fundup.gif (123 bytes)

Date: Mon, 16 Nov 1998
13:06:14, -0500
Subject: Kwame Ture

Please inform all that Kwame passed away yesterday about 3:30pm in
Guinea, Africa. He was surrounded by love ones including his mother
and sister.

Contributions should be sent to: Kwame Ture Medical Fund,
c/o Black United Fund of Illinois, 1809 East 71st Street, Suite 200,
Chicago, Illinois 60649

Messages can be sent to his family at


The Hidden History of Black Nationalist Women's Political Activism  2/3/2018 Truth Out: "Contrary to popular conceptions, women were also instrumental to the spread and articulation of black nationalism -- the political view that people of African descent constitute a separate group on the basis of their distinct culture, shared history and experiences. As I demonstrate in my new book, Set the World on Fire, black nationalist movements would have all but disappeared were it not for women. What's more, these women laid the groundwork for the generation of black activists who came of age during the civil rights-black power era. In the 1960s, many black activists -- including Ella Baker, Fannie Lou Hamer, Robert F. Williams, Malcolm X and Stokely Carmichael -- drew on these women's ideas and political strategies."

The hidden history of black nationalist women’s political activism  1/30/2018 The Conversation: "As I demonstrate in my new book, “Set the World on Fire,” black nationalist movements would have all but disappeared were it not for women. What’s more, these women laid the groundwork for the generation of black activists who came of age during the civil rights-black power era. In the 1960s, many black activists – including Ella Baker, Fannie Lou Hamer, Robert F. Williams, Malcolm X and Stokely Carmichael – drew on these women’s ideas and political strategies."

How fans of Fidel Castro's 1953 revolution gradually became disenchanted  12/31/2015 Australian Financial Review: "Rojas is most energized when discussing the multiple views of the Cuban revolution among African-American civil rights activists and leaders of the Black Panther Party in particular, perhaps because their opinions were varied and less easily categorized. Party co-founder Huey P. Newton "advocated subordinating the black cause to a larger socialist cause," Rojas writes, and admired the mix of nationalism and socialism that he saw in Ho Chi Minh's Vietnam and Castro's Cuba. Others such as Stokely Carmichael, however, rejected any prospect of Cold War alliances with the Soviets or did not necessarily link racial emancipation in America to a socialist project, Rojas explains. Meanwhile, Black Panther leader Eldridge Cleaver noted that few of the Cuban revolution's commanders were black and highlighted the racism in the island's daily life and ideological rhetoric."

Beyond ‘Black Power,’ recounting the under-told story of Stokely Carmichael  3/17/2014 PBS: "PENIEL JOSEPH: I think he should be remembered as really one of the watershed figures of 20th century, this activist who believed in human rights, who really, when he was 19 years old, is arrested for the first time, one of over 40 arrests for civil rights demonstrations, puts his life on the line, puts his body on the line to try to achieve citizenship, democracy, human rights for all. So I think it’s an incredible story about young people who persevere and believe that the United States, and really the world, could be changed."

Tricontinental Routes of Solidarity: Stokely Carmichael in Cuba  12/1/2012 The Journal of Transnational American Studies: "Stokely Carmichael’s visit to Cuba for three weeks in the summer of 1967 illustrates a convergence in the transnational routes of the African American freedom struggle and the Cuban Revolution. African American activists saw Cuba as a model for resisting US power, eradicating racism, and enacting societal change, while the Cuban government considered African Americans allies against US imperialism and advocates of Cuba’s antiracist stance. Amidst racial violence in the United States and Cuba’s efforts to inspire revolution, Carmichael’s presence at the Organization of Latin American Solidarity conference in Havana—and in particular his interactions with Fidel Castro—caused ripples worldwide. A shared “tricontinental” vision that promoted unity in the Global South against imperialism, capitalism, and racism facilitated Carmichael’s solidarity with Castro. Yet divergent views on the role of race in fighting oppression limited their solidarity. Carmichael and Castro’s spectacular alliance demonstrated their personal affinity and ideological commonalities but did not result in an institutional alliance between the black liberation movement and the Cuban state. Instead Carmichael’s connection with the Cuban Revolution left an underexplored legacy. Examining Carmichael’s visit to Cuba illustrates the possibilities and pitfalls of transnational solidarity and furthers our understanding of postwar struggles for change."

An African Tree Branches: Kwame Ture Shares His Roots  12/9/2003 The Black World Today: "He told his young son about seeing the newly elected president of Ghana come forward to introduce his cabinet to the Parliament. The president and all the cabinet members were not wearing the formal clothes of the British colonial rulers, or the regal African robes of their village status. They wore the misshapen prison garb of the imprisonment they had endured for their nation's liberation. "Boy, you hear me, those black men marched right out of prison and into power," the exuberant sailor told his son in the Bronx home he renovated with his own hands. That son was Stokely Carmichael who later met Kwame Nkrumah, the Ghanaian president, and took on the president's first name in respect when he became Kwame Ture."

Kwame Ture’s “Ready for Revolution” launched  11/19/2003 BWT 

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Interchange's Kwame Ture page



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